What are some historical examples of volcanoes affecting the climate?

Top 10 most destructive volcanic eruption in the Philippines

Volcanic eruption of land based are extremely rare, because climate change is usually measured at a minimum of 15 years, and most scientists consider 30 years as the best period.

However there have been a few eruptions that have disrupted the weather in the areas surrounding the volcanic blasts.

The best/most dramatic know example; the year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year and Eighteen Hundred and Froze To Death)[1] because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.

4u20130.

7 u00b0C (0.

7u20131 u00b0F).

[2] Summer temperatures in Europe were the coldest on record between the years of 1766u20132000.

[3] This resulted in major food shortages across the Northern Hemisphere.

[4] Evidence suggests that the anomaly was predominantly a volcanic winter event caused by the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in April in the Dutch East Indies (known today as Indonesia).

This eruption was the largest in at least 1,300 years (after the hypothesized eruption causing the extreme weather events of 535u2013536), and perhaps exacerbated by the 1814 eruption of Mayon in the Philippines.

,Here are the top ten destructive volcanic explosions.

Top 10 Most Beautiful & Deadly VolcanoesTypically what happens in the affected areas is that the sky gets filled with volcanic dust and gases.

These volcanic pollutions cause the atmosphere to block more sunlight from reaching the earth and so cause the affected areas to get colder.

In extreme cases this decreased sunlight reaching the earthu2019s surface will cause major agricultural failures and result in localized food shortages.

But with todayu2019s global economy and global agriculture these starvations are more of a thing of the past.

Top 5 most destructive volcanic eruption in the Philippines

Based on the studied and experts and volcano enthusiasts working with Albert Zijlstra, Professor of astrophysics at the University of Manchester, have compiled a list.

,credit to EARTHSKY,Published as a series of blogs on the Volcano cafe website, the list of the 10 most dangerous volcanoes on Earth includes volcanoes which have a realistic chance of erupting in the next 100 years and which risk killing a million people or more.

At the number one spot is the Japanese island of Iwo Jima.

The list includes volcanoes from all over the world, including South and Central America, Africa, Asia and Europe.

,1.

Iwo Jima (Ioto), Japan.

Candidate for a very large eruption.

nAt risk: Japan, Philippines, coastal ChinanThe island of Iwo Jima is about twenty meters higher than it was in 1945 due to a growing magma chamber underneath.

The beach where the American forces landed in 1945 is now 17 meters above the ocean surface.

The island has been pushed up by 1 meter every 4 years since several hundred years.

It is only a matter of time before the whole island explodes.

Although few people live on Iwo Jima itself, a large eruption would cause a tsunami that could devastate southern Japan and coastal China including Shanghai and Hong Kong.

The team estimates that in Japan the tsunami could be 25 meters high.

The eruption of the similar sized Kuwae volcano in Vanatua in 1458 caused a tsunami 30 meters high in northern New Zealand, and lead to the cultural collapse of Polynesia.

,The 300 m high Apoyeque stratovolcano rises to the Northwest beyond the Lago Xilou00e1 maar crater in the foreground.

,2.

Chiltepe/Apoyeque, Nicaragua.

nAt risk: ManaguanThe second most dangerous volcano has been named as Apoyeque in Nicaragua, which is next to the capital city of Managua, with a population of more than two million.

Apoyeque has the threat of an underwater eruption, which could cause a large lake tsunami, as well as the danger posed by the eruption itself.

It has had major eruptions every 2000 years.

The last one was 2000 years ago.

,Campi Flegrei.

,3.

Campei Flegrei, Italy.

nAt risk: NaplesnIn third place is Campei Flegrei near Naples in Italy, which poses even more of a threat to the city than Vesuvius.

It erupts less frequently than Vesuvius, but is much closer to the city and has the potential for much larger eruptions.

The western suburbs of Naples, a city of 4.

4 million, are build inside its caldera.

,Mount Aso photographed from the caldera ridge east of the city of Aso (pop.

28,931).

From left to right u2013 Mt Neko, Mt Nakadake and finally Mt Kishima.

Image credit: WikiMedia Commons,4.

Mount Aso, Japan.

nAt risk: Kumamoto, Nagasaki.

,The extinct volcano Sierra de Guadalupe rises 750 metres above Mexico City, itu2019s highest peak within 15 km of the centre of the city.

In spite of conservation attempts, illegal buildings continue to sprout and at present the crater and debris avalanche have been completely covered by urban development.

,5.

Trans Mexico Volcanic Belt, Mexico.

nAt risk: Mexico City, Pueblo, Toluca.

,Sunset from the 3,148 m high summit of Gunung Agung.

The peak in the distance is G.

Abang, a remnant of a far loftier peak, Ancestral Batur.

Image credit: WikimediaCommons photo by Mrllmrll,6.

Gunung Agung, Indonesia.

nAt risk: Bali.

,Mount Cameroon.

Craters left after the eruptions in 2000.

Image credit: Wikimedia commons,7.

Mount Cameroon (or Mongo ma Ndemi), Cameroon.

nAt risk: Buea, Douala.

,This image shows Volcano Island, located in the middle of the Taal caldera, formerly known as Lake Bombon or Lake Taal.

Image credit: George Tapan,8 Taal, Philippines.

nAt risk: Manilla.

,Photograph taken from Legazpi City of Mayon during the December 2009 eruption.

Photo credit: New York Daily News, Sayat/Getty,9.

Mayon, Philippines.

nAt risk: Legazpi.

,Image from the 2014 eruption of Gunung Kelud.

Photo credit: AlexMG.

,10 Gunung Kelud, Indonesia.

nAt risk: Malang.

,Henrik Lovu00ebn, previously a major in the Swedish army and keen amateur volcanologist, helps to run the Volcano Cafu00e9 site and contributed to the top ten list.

He said:,We want to raise awareness that there are many volcanoes that could erupt and that are not being monitored properly.

Hopefully the people who live near the volcanoes in this list will get more help to help them prepare for an eruption.

Taal Volcano

Taal Volcano is the second most active volcano in the Philippines, with 33 recorded historical eruptions, all of which were concentrated on Volcano Island, near the middle of Taal Lake.

The caldera was formed by prehistoric eruptions between 140,000 and 5,380 BP.

,Volcano Island, called Taal Volcano, has erupted more than 34 times since 1572, most recently in 2020.

,The Taal caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level.

The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and contains several eruptive centers submerged beneath the lake.

All historic eruptions took place from the 5-km-wide volcanic island in the northern-central part of the lake.

nThe island is formed by overlapping stratovolcanoes, cinder cones and tuff rings (maars).

Historic eruptions have seen the constant change and growth of the island.

nTaal caused one of the worst volcano disasters in history: its eruption in 1911 killed 1334 people and caused ash fall as far as Manila city.

Due to its devastating potential, Taal was declared one of the Decade Volcanoes in the Decade Volcanoes program of the 1990s in order to incentive study and monitoring of the volcano.

Taal is today one of the most closely monitored volcanoes in the region.

An increase in seismic activity under Taal was recorded in November 2006, followed by an increase in hot water springs in the crater in April 2007.

Taal Volcano eruption

Yes Makati is almost 100 kms away from Taal volcano and hence completely safe from the volcano eruption there.

,at worst case, all Makati will get is some ash fall in case of an eruption.

Volcanoes in the Philippines

The Philippines has a lot of volcanoes and earthquakes because it is situated along the tectonically active Pacific Ring of Fire.

Mayon Volcano

People are fascinated by volcanoes.

They are elemental, timeless and dangerous.

,The word-of-mouth is compelling.

Vast numbers of tourists who have already been rave about it, because, quite franklyu2026,Mayon is gorgeous! It would be on the recruiting posters for strato-volcanoes.

It is spookily symmetrical (see the contour map below),If you are interested in volcano monitoring and eruption prediction - then that is just a bonus.