What is the difference in construction between substantial completion and final completion?

Substantial completion certificate

Substantial Completion is the term used in construction contracts to describe the stage in which the work is sufficiently complete so that the owner can occupy or utilize the building for its intended use, in spite of some things that might need to be completed or corrected.

,Final completion is the stage in which a contractor is entitled to final payment given that all work has been fulfilled.

,Substantial CompletionAccording to the AIA A-201 -General Conditions of the contract for construction- when the contractor considers that the work is substantially complete, he prepares a comprehensive list of items that need to be completed or corrected before final payment and submits them to the architect attached to the application for Substantial Completion Certificate.

This list is commonly referred as Punch List.

It constitutes an acknowledgement that work remains to be done after substantial completion.

,Once the architect accepts that the building is complete enough, he will certify the application for Substantial Completion, and the contractor will be relieved of several responsabilities such as paying for utilities, security, insurance, maintenance and damage to the property.

These are promptly passed on to the owner.

,The owner at the same time, will release all or most monies withheld to the contractor during construction as part of the retainage on each application for payment.

,Establishing the proper date of Substantial Completion is important because warranties of the materials and equipment installed begin running and so does the 1 year correction period in which any portion of the work not found according to the contract documents shall be corrected by the contractor.

,Final CompletionOnce the contractor completes the punch list -and any other item that arises after substantial completion- he will send the architect a notice that the work is ready for a final inspection.

,If the architect finds the work to be complete according to the contract documents, he will instruct the contractor to submit a final application for payment by which he will certify all remaining balance of the work.

,Before doing so, the contractor will need to submit an affidavit that payrolls and bills of material suppliers have been paid in full and that any insurance to protect the owner will be renewable.

,While final completion is a milestone, it does not terminate certain important rights of the owner such as claims against the contractor for work failing to comply with the owneru2019s requirements, and that is only discovered after final payment is concluded.

Practical completion vs substantial completion

NEET is UnconstitutionalActually let me correct you regarding the question, not only according to TN even according to the recalled judgement of the Supreme Court in 2013, NEET is unconstitutional and is against state autonomy.

,But the majority judgment by Chief Justice Kabir and Justice (now retired) Vikramjit Sen had differed, holding that NEET would deprive the States, State-run universities and medical colleges, including those enjoying the constitutional protection, of their right to admit students to MBBS, BDS and postgraduate courses as per their own procedures, beliefs and dispensations.

u201cIn our view, the role attributed to, and the powers conferred on, the MCI and the DCI under u2026 the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, and the Dentists Act, 1948, do not contemplate anything different, and are restricted to laying down standards which are uniformly applicable to all medical colleges and institutions u2026 to ensure the excellence of medical education u2026u201d the majority judgment had held.

TN has the highest number of state run government medical colleges in India.

It was the dream of the successive state governments irrespective of the political party, to have one government medical college in each district of TN and they are marching towards their goal by getting the nod for 6 more government medical colleges to be built in 2020.

All this was only possible through the tax contributed by the people of TN and electing progressive governments who built colleges instead of spiritual places.

,Now the central government wants to control the admission process for the state run government medical colleges is unfair to the state and its people.

This infrastructure in TN did not come about in a day, and for the center to control the admission process once we have the infrastructure ready to facilitate the people of the state and not contributing towards the infrastructure is injustice to the people of TN.

,,NEET is Social InjusticeThe reservation system is not followed in NEET and it is alleged that 10,000 OBC seats of UG, PG and other medical courses have been denied in the past 3 years under AIQ.

TN has one of the highest reservations in the country at 69% and this needs to be followed in state surrendered seats to AIQ as well which has not been followed in the past 3 years.

,Alleging that out of 8,800 seats surrendered by States, not a single seat was given to OBCs, the AIADMK in its petition said all the seats were transferred to the general category which was unjustified and unconstitutional.

,The petitioner further alleged that the OBCs were robbed off 10,000 seats in the last three years at least and many more during the preceding years.

,The Union of India cannot be permitted to turn a blind eye when a significant number of meritorious OBC students are denied seats in the State captured seats in All India Quota, the AIADMK contended.

There was a 90% fall after NEET was introduced in TN in 2017u201318 wherein the Tamil-medium students who secured a medical seat fell from 438 students in 2016u201317 to just 40 students in 2017u201318 which is gross injustice to the students from the government schools of TN who readily serve people in the rural and tribal areas of the state.

,While 456 Tamil-medium students got admission in 2015-2016, the number stood at 438 in 2016-2017, the year NEET was introduced in the country.

The Centre had, however, exempted Tamil Nadu students from the exam in the first year due to opposition from the former chief minister late J Jayalalithaa.

,In the first year of NEET in Tamil Nadu in 2017-18, the number of students who got admission to government medical colleges fell to just 40, almost a 90 per cent fall from 438 the previous year, details obtained through the RTI query showed.

It improved to 88 in 2018-19.

,NEET is Anti-poorIn the year 2019, only 1.

6% of the students who didnt attend coaching classes for NEET secured a medical seat in government medical colleges in TN.

This shows that the other 98.

4% of the students spent lakhs together to attend coaching classes for NEET.

Now only the rich and the city bred students have access to NEET coaching centers.

The poor villagers and tribal people who live in the hills neither have the money nor the access to coaching centers to crack NEET.

,Also, 66.

2% who cleared NEET in 2019 took more than one attempt to clear NEET.

Now you should know that only students who are supported economically by their parents can afford to drop an year or two to prepare for NEET and students from poor economic conditions have to give up their dream of becoming doctors owing to their familys socio-economic conditions.

,The data submitted by Additional Advocate General P.

H.

Arvindh Pandian showed that a total of 3,081 candidates got admitted in MBBS course in 23 government medical colleges in the State this year.

,Of them, only 48 candidates had not attended any coaching centre while the rest had taken coaching from various centres.

,NEET is Not a Measure of Merit or QualityI do not understand this argument from people who support NEET arguing that it is a measure of merit and quality.

NEET is just an entrance exam which can be cracked only through paying lakhs to the coaching mafia.

,The quality of a medical professional is gauged by the performance of the individual in the 5 years of the MBBS course and once the medical professional starts to practice.

Just because you cleared NEET doesnt mean that youre a qualified medical professional, you still have 5 years of the course ahead.

So, those students who come through class 12 board exam marks have previously cleared the 5 years course and have become qualified medical professionals in TN and are practicing not only in TN but all over the world.

,NEET is a test of unequals with undue advantages.

If you can afford to drop an year or two youre going to clear NEET ultimately by paying a hefty fee for all the dropped years to the coaching mafias.

I dont see the point of merit or quality here.

,u201cThe first-timers have to prepare for Plus Two examinations as well as for NEET simultaneously, whereas students who had already completed their Plus Two could fairly devote their time for preparing exclusively for NEET.

The unequals have been treated equally in NEET and the results would speak for themselves.

This fact should also be taken note of by the Central government.

u201d ,Global Study on Standardized TestsAlso, here is a global study which suggests that standardized tests are not a measure of merit or quality.

,Thereu2019s also an ongoing discussion in countries such as the US on whether standardised tests like the SAT should be used at all in deciding college admissions.

Research indicates that school grades are a much better predictor of the personality, which in turn determines a studentu2019s actual success.

After all, what a standardised test ends up measuring is how socially advantaged a student is u2013 given that access to coaching classes, preparation guides and the like have a massive influence on test scores.

There is substantial scholarship in the West (Sacks, Freedle, Wells, Camara & Schmidt) that argues that common admission tests cannot measure abilities that are essential for learning such as imagination, curiosity and motivation.

,Quality of TN Healthcare SystemTN Healthcare System is a world class quality healthcare system and had world class medical professionals even before NEET.

TN is known for medical tourism and Chennai is the medical hub of India.

,Over the years, Chennai has evolved into a medical hub.

u201cNow Chennai has become the mecca of healthcare.

We get patients from the middle eastern and SAARC countries.

We keep evolving,u201d said Amar Agarwal, chairman of Agarwal Eye Hospitals.

If you would like a measure of the quality of the TN healthcare here it is for your observation.

,The proof of how well the system works is in the outcome it generates.

If the purpose of medical education is producing doctors who provide healthcare for the society, then by all accounts, Tamil Nadu has a good system.

After all, the state has Indiau2019s best healthcare system thatu2019s been held up as a model for other developing countries by the Lancet report on Good Health at low cost: Lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

Here are the healthcare indicators of TN compared to other states.

,If you consider the number of doctors per 1000 patients then Tamil Nadu tops the list with 4 doctors per thousand patients which is as high as European countries like Norway and Sweden.

Only Kerala and Tamil Nadu have achieved the SDG30 target for NMR 12 per 1000 live births; Punjab is close.

,The below chart is for the mortality rate under 5 years per 1000 births and you again see here that Kerala leads with 11 and the second best is Tamil Nadu with 19.

,NEET Exams are Unfair and Not TransparentThere have been issues of NEET question paper getting leaked, proxy students writing NEET and issues with translation into regional languages of the question paper.

,The Crime Branch CID of the Tamil Nadu police have blown the lid off a huge scam in which Plus Two students who appeared for National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) in the State engaged proxy candidates to simultaneously write the exam for them with the same credentials in other centres and managed to get admission to medical colleges.

NEET is not student-friendly, merit-promoting.

,The NEET paper was leaked twice in the last four years; therefore, there is not much confidence in NEETu2019s fairness and transparency.

Finally, there is the issue of wrong translation.

In the 2018 NEET, as many as 49 questions had errors in Tamil translation leading to a Madras High Court order to award four marks for each of the 49 wrongly translated questions, or 196 marks to all 1.

07 lakh candidates of Tamil Nadu.

The Supreme Court overruled this order as the High Court had arbitrarily ordered giving grace marks to everyone without examining whether the student even attempted such a question.

,NEET is a Manusmriti Test of ExclusionThere was once a time in pre-independent India when there was a rule that only those who knew Sanskrit were eligible to study medicine to become medical professionals in India.

NEET is an extension of that rule there by making sure that only a certain section of the society has access to medical education in India.

This not only deprives medical education to certain sections of the society such as the socially and economically backward classes, it also deprives the acess to medical care to those particular sections of the society.

,Actor Suriya was right in calling NEET as a Manuneethi (Manusmriti) Test.

,u201cThe government, which is supposed to create an equal playground for everyone, is creating an education policy that is creating inequality among the students.

Those who have no understanding of the ground reality of the students from poor and downtrodden families are making education policies.

The court, which delivers judgments through video-conferencing due to the fear of coronavirus, orders the students to take exam fearlessly.

The deaths of students just becomes a subject of discussions on the news channels for a day.

And some u2018Chanakyasu2019 even engage in heated debates about spelling mistakes in the suicide notes of the students.

u2018Manuneethiu2019 tests like NEET not just deprive our students of opportunities but also takes their lives,u201d the actor added.

,Finally Suicide of S.

Anitha and 12 other studentsShanmugam Anitha (5 March 2000 u2013 1 September 2017), was a student from Tamil Nadu, India.

She scored 1176/1200 in the 12th standard exams in the Tamil Nadu State Board.

This would have secured her a medical seat, if only the State Board marks had been considered for admission.

In NEET-UG 2017, Anitha secured 12.

33 percentile while scored 86/720 marks.

Substantial Completion date vs final completion

For most projects (maybe not for individual houses) the final step of the many inspections for your Building Permit is to get a Certificate of Substantial Completion.

This means that the building has been inspected/certified to be occupied, safely, for the intended use of the building permit.

Work left still undone, known as punchlist work, will be limited to minor things such as touch up painting of scratches, adjusting a cabinet hinge, replacing a damaged drop ceiling tile, etc.

,The date of the Certificate of Substantial Completion is important as it often gets tied to things like a requirement for a new type of insurance (Property vs Builders Risk), starting of payments for the construction loan, and other items like that.