What is a circulatory system?

Circulatory system

As the name itself indicates, circulatory system helps in flowing of blood throughout the body.

This system consists of Heart and blood vessels.

,HEARTIt is the pumping organ of the body which makes the blood flow in the vessels.

Its functions are similar to that of a mechanical motor in a water system which helps in the movement of water.

Heart is made up of muscle which undergoes contractions and relaxations to pump the blood to different parts of the body.

,BLOOD VESSELSThese are hollow elastic tubes which carry blood to different body parts.

The blood vessels consists of arteries, veins and are interconnected by capillaries.

Arteries: These are the vessels which supply blood to all the organs.

The blood in these arteries are rich in oxygen and nutrients which are utilized by the organs.

,Veins: These are the vessels which collects the blood from all organs and finally drain them into heart.

The blood in veins have lesser amounts of oxygen and nutrients compared to arteries.

,Capillaries: These are small interconnecting vessels which connect arteries to veins.

These are very thin walled and the exchange of different substances mainly takes place through these capillaries.

,NOTE: Capillaries are absent in lower organisms such as insects, snails etc.

The blood flows freely in the body spaces(sinusoids) present in them.

Blood circulatory system

I know nothing about blood circulation or this Braess paradox, but what you said about it reminded me of a Tesla valve.

,IDK if its really relevant, but if youre interested in flowing things you might find it interesting.

I just googled it, didnt find very much, but there are some decent YouTube videos.

,(Its probably, sadly, necessary for me to add, Im not a Tesla fanatic.

Its just a cool, solid state, one-way valve with no moving parts that works through, uhh, fluid dynamics - I dont know what its properly called.


Respiratory system

Well quite alot.

,Main Function- Your body is made up of 100s of millions of cells.

Every cell in your body needs oxygen for generation of energy( well there is this super wierd process known as oxidative phosphorylation , the terminal step of which is basically oxidation of hydrogen ions and this is coupled with phosphorylation of a diphosphate(adp) into a triphosphate(atp).

Now this atp is what provides your cell enery and oxygen is what is required to generate these atps from ETC).

,Now from where does this cell get oxygen from, its from the blood, also cells generate Carbondioxide(during the process of breakdown of glucose, which proceeds the above mentioned process and is the source of hydrogen ions in the first place, in form of NADPH + H+/FADH + H+).

So basically blood will provide these cells oxygen and wash away carbondioxide generated.

,Now lungs , pull in fresh air, oxgen from which is delivered to blood and Carbondioxide from blood is delivered to air, mainly due to difference in partial pressure of respective gases.

,Hence lungs provide the body with OXYGEN and wash out the waste CARBON DIOXIDE.

,There are many minor functions of RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as well-,ace mediated conversion of AG1 to AG2,FIGHT INFECTIONS,well production of voice can also be considered one of its functions.

,ACID BASE BALANCE,FILTRATION,There are many more, if interested to know, do let me know.


Heart circulatory system

Blood returns to the heart from the body (systemic circulation) via the vena cava, entering the right atrium.

This blood has a reduced level of oxygen.

From the atrium the blood enters the right ventricle passing through the tri-cuspid valve.

The valves of the heart keep the blood flowing in the right direction.

The ventricle pushes the blood out into the pulmonary artery and it enters the pulmonary circulation.

As the artery splits into smaller and smaller arterioles those begin to give off capillaries which surround the alveoli of the lungs.

These are the air sacs at the ends of the bronchioles and it is here that oxygen diffuses out of the air, through the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries into the blood (binding with the hemoglobin of the red blood cells).

The blood is now richer in oxygen and leaves the lungs through the veinules, veins, then the pulmonary vein entering the heart at the left atrium.

Passing through the bicuspid or mitral valve the blood enters the left ventricle.

This is the chamber of the heart that is most muscular.

When the left ventricle pushes the blood out into the aorta (the largest artery) a pressure wave is formed that can be felt as your pulse.

This blood then speeds through the arterial (systemic) system moving from arteries to arterioles to capillaries surrounding all of the cells of the body.

At this point there is a large difference in the relative amount of oxygen in the blood and in the cells.

Oxygen diffuses from the red blood cells across the capillary walls into the interstitial spaces and then into the cells where it allows nutrients to be metabolized and life to continue.

The (now lowered in oxygen) blood moves out of the capillaries into veinules, into veins, and into the vena cava to be returned to the heart and start all over.

Cardiovascular system

Yes, in some cases.

Plaques and cholesterol are signs of damage the body is trying to heal.

The underlying damage is frequently caused by inflammation.

Eating a very low carb diet with little to no white sugar, flour, starches will help lower inflammation.

Eating natural fats, not manmade junk like canola oil, Crisco, corn oil, and other highly processed fats will help lower inflammation, as will taking one low dose aspirin daily.

Getting plenty of Vitamin D3, either as sunlight or in high quality supplements if you live far north or south of the equator will help.

HIITS ( high intensity interval training sets) will help more than prolonged low intensity u201ccardiou201d exercise.

All of these put together can lower inflammation and, over time reduce the bodyu2019s need for healing plaques and cholesterol buildup.

,Itu2019s easiest to start with diet reform.

The exercise needs to be started slowly and worked up to, as well as under supervision, to prevent damage to joints and muscles from improper form in the exercises.